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The city marks the end of a navigable waterway for the river and the entry to the Georgia Piedmont area.The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the fall line near Augusta, forming Clarks Hill Lake.The racial makeup of the city-county area was 54.7% Black or African American, 39.1% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.3% some other race, and 2.6% from two or more races.Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.1% of the population.In 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River.He gave them an order to build a fort at the head of the navigable part of the river.
A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, Augusta is located about halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line, which creates a number of small falls on the river.
The area along the river was long inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who relied on the river for fish, water and transportation.
The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of its location on the fall line.
Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795 (alternating for a period with Savannah, the first).
Augusta developed rapidly as a market town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation.